Applied Sciences

Environmental Technology


TECHNOLOGY

When the 4th edition of this website went online more than 6 years ago, on 21/3/'10, this sub-section was concerned solely with 'environmental technology'. In these six years, 21/3/'10 to 30/3/'16, of this 4th edition, though, I found it necessary to divide this sub-section into two separate sections. The first deals with ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY, and the second deals with OTHER ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGY. When a 5th edition of my website comes out some time in the future as it is currently planned, I will have my website design and development people open 2 separate sub-sections, or webpages, to reflect its new reality. With pancreatic cancer this is not likely to occur.

A. Technology ("science of craft", from Greek "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and is the collection of techniques,skills, methods and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques, processes, etc. or it can be embedded in machines, computers, devices and factories, which can be operated by individuals without detailed knowledge of the workings of such things.

The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistoric discovery of how to control fire and the later Neolithic Revolution increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans to travel in and control their environment. Developments in historic times, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. The steady progress of military technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

B. Technology has many effects. It has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of Earth's environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar reactionary movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, arguing that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society & the human condition. Until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but 21st century scientific studies indicate that other primates & certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and passed their knowledge to other generations.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology

A: ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY: DEFINED AND DESCRIBED

Environmental technology, sometimes abbreviated as envirotech; or green technology, sometimes abbreviated as greentech; or clean technology abbreviated as cleantech---is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. The term is also used to describe sustainable energy generation technologies such as: Photovoltaics, Wind Turbine's, Bioreactors, inter alia.  Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies. The term environmental technologies is also used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources. MORE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_technology AND
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Environmental_technology


Environmental Science & Technology is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1967 by the American Chemical Society. It covers research in environmental science and environmental technology, including environmental policy. The journal also includes a magazine section. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2014 impact factor of 5.330. In June 2013, the editors announced a companion journal for short articles called Environmental Science & Technology MORE:  http://pubs.acs.org/journal/esthag and  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_Science_%26_Technology

​Book:Environmental Technology


Environmental technology
Aethalometer
Air stripping
Alternative technology
Applied ecology
Birth control
China greentech initiative
Clean technology
CleanEquity
Daintree Networks
EcoDisc
Ecotechnology
Environmental memory
Environmental Technology Verification Program
Environmental tests
Green highway
GreenEarth Cleaning
IEEE Medal for Environmental and Safety Technologies
Integrated chain management
Lamella clarifier
Leapfrogging
Lighting control system
Sonita Lontoh
OnGreen
Opower
Renewable energy
Simple Energy
Solar Valley
Waste pond

Environmental technology

Appropriate technology
Clean technology
Environmental design
Environmental impact assessment
Sustainable development
Sustainable technology

Pollution

Air pollution (control
dispersion modeling)
Industrial ecology
Solid waste treatment
Waste management
Water (agricultural wastewater treatment
industrial wastewater treatment
sewage treatment
waste-water treatment technologies
water purification)

Renewable energy

Alternative energy
Efficient energy use
Energy development
Energy recovery
Fuel (alternative fuel
biofuel
carbon negative fuel
hydrogen technologies)
List of energy storage projects
Renewable energy (commercialization)
Sustainable energy
Transportation (electric vehicle
hybrid vehicle)

Conservation

Birth control
Building (green
natural
sustainable architecture
New Urbanism
New Classical)
Conservation biology
Conservation ethic
Ecoforestry
Environmental preservation
Environmental remediation
Green computing
Permaculture
Recycling

DESSERTIFICATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE

“Desertification is a fancy word for land that is turning to desert,” begins Allan Savory in this quietly powerful talk. And it's happening to about two-thirds of the world’s grasslands, accelerating climate change and causing traditional grazing societies to descend into social chaos. Savory has devoted his life to stopping it. He now believes, his work so far shows, that a surprising factor can protect grasslands and even reclaim degraded land that was once desert. Go to this link for a talk on the above subject: http://www.ted.com/talks/allan_savory_how_to_green_the_world_s_deserts_and_reverse_climate_change.html?source

EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES


List of emerging technologies from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is a list of currently emerging technologies, which contains some of the most prominent ongoing developments, advances, and innovations in various fields of modern technology. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage.

1Agriculture
2Aviation
3Climate engineering
4Construction

4.1Architecture
4.2Materials science

5Displays
6Home appliance
7Electronics
8Energy
9Entertainment
10IT and communications
11Medical

11.1Neuroscience

12Military
13Outer space
14Robotics
15Transport
16See also
17Further reading
18References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_emerging_technologies





CREATIVE INDUSTRIES JOURNAL

The scope of the Creative Industries Journal is global, primarily aimed at those studying and practicing activities which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent, and which have a potential for wealth creation. These activities primarily take place in advertising, architecture, the art and antiques market, crafts, design, fashion, film, interactive leisure software, music, the performing arts, publishing, television and radio. The Creative Industries Journal has been included in the Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) list 2010. For more on journals of this kind with titles like:  (1) Strategies for creative industries: an international review, and  (2) Location, location, location: exploring the complex relationship between creative industries and place  go to:http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/search/search,query=Creative%2BIndustries%2BJournal/

EXAMPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY   

    Biofiltration
    Bioreactor
    Biosphere Technology
    Bioremediation
    Desalination
    Doubly fed electric machine
    Energy Conservation
    Energy Saving Modules
    Electric Vehicles
    Wave Energy
    Green computing
    Hydroelectricity
    Wind power
    Wind Turbine
    Hydrogen fuel cell
    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
    Solar power
    Photovoltaic
    Thermal depolymerization
    Composting toilet

RENEWABLE ENERGY

Renewable energy is energy that can be replenished easily. For years we have been using sources like wood, sun, water, etc. for the means for producing energy. Energy that can be produced by natural objects like wood, sun, wind, etc. is considered to be renewable.
Water Purification

Water purification: The whole idea/concept of having dirt/germ/pollution free water flowing throughout the environment. Many other phenomena lead from this concept of purification of water. Water pollution is the main enemy of this concept, and various campaigns and activists have been organized around the world to help purify water. Considering the amount of water usage that is under current consumptions, this Concept is of utter Importance.

AIR PURIFICATION

Air Purification: basic and common green plants can be grown indoors to keep air fresh because all plants remove CO2 and convert it into oxygen. The best examples are: Dypsis lutescens, Sansevieria trifasciata, and Epipremnum aureum.

OTHER ASPECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY


A. Go to this link for the following topics:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_technology

1.5 Sewage treatment
    1.6 Environmental remediation
    1.7 Solid waste management
    1.8 eGain forecasting
    1.9 Energy Conservation

2 Alternative and clean power
3 Education
4 Criticisms


B. OTHER ASPECTS OF TECHNOLOGY

Part 1:

Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from a Greek word technología; from téchnē, meaning "art, skill, craft", and -logía, meaning "study of-". The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology.

The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.

Part 2:

Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies, including today's global economy.  Technology has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.

Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations. For more go to:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology

INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY

Innovation Magazine showcases Princeton University's cutting edge research at the frontiers of science, engineering, and technology. Go to this link to download back issues: http://issuu.com/theplankt/docs/2015_winter_issue_final3

JOBS AND TECHNOLOGY


Technology is not something that we can divorce from life; indeed, it has an intimate connection with just about everything. Thomas Frey is the Executive Director and Senior Futurist at the DaVinci Institute. He is also the author of the groundbreaking book “Communicating with the Future” in which he speaks at the link below to the Creative Innovation 2012 Conference in Melbourne. He talks about the impact new technologies will have on the jobs market in the future. He discusses: driverless cars, teacherless schools, printable houses and much more - we're in for a wild ride!  Two billion jobs will disappear in the next 15 years, by 2030, he says. Go to this link to listen to his lecture:http://www.themonthly.com.au/2-billion-jobs-disappear-2030-thomas-frey-7303

TECHNOLOGY AND OBSOLESCENCE

When it comes to technological objects, functionality, efficiency, and usefulness are the central reasons for their existence. Accordingly, becoming obsolete poses a great challenge towards the reason for their existence, raising our perception about obsolete technology as a waste. Strasser wrote in the 1920s — “economic growth was fueled by what had once been understood as waste.” This notion carries over to today’s computing environment in which the high rate of machine turnover translates into tremendous profitability for the computing industries. Hence planned obsolescence, planning and engineering the obsolescence, became a long-established principle in American consumer economics.

The ways in which computing devices are designed today are good resulting representations of planned obsolescence. A study in 2007 showed that American consumers use their phones for only 17.5 months before replacing them (U.S. Wireless Mobile Phone Evaluation Study), and worldwide sales of mobile phones are expected to exceed one billion by 2009 (Gartner). Huang and Truong called the trend of usage lifetime being much shorter than their functional lifetime the disposable technology paradigm. As environmental sustainability became an important issue in our daily lives, the awareness of planned obsolescence and the disposable technology paradigm alarmed researchers to actively engage in the questions of supporting sustainability in computing devices. Because of the notion that obsolescence equals waste, the conversations in designing for sustainability have been based on the view that obsolescence is something that is problematic and need to be prevented. For example, sustainable interaction design (Blevis) suggested ways in which design can prolong the life cycle of the product in order to delay or prevent the product from becoming obsolete. For more go to: http://journal.media-culture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/157

A NUCLEAR-POWERED PROTOTYPE VEHICLE

A US company says it will have a nuclear-powered prototype vehicle on the road within two years, by the end of 2016. Laser Power Systems from Connecticut is developing a method of propulsion that uses thorium to produce electricity to power a car engine. Thorium is an element similar to uranium and because it is such a dense material it has the potential to produce massive amounts of heat.  According to Laser Power Systems CEO, Charles Stevens, just one gram of thorium produces more energy than 28,000 litres of petrol. Mr Stevens says just eight grams of thorium would be enough to power a vehicle for its entire life.  Go to this link for more details: http://www.caradvice.com.au/132921/the-thorium-powered-car-eight-grams-one-million-miles/

A PHILOSOPHY OF TECHNOLOGY

Part 1:

During the past fifteen years Bernard Stiegler has been elaborating a highly original philosophy of technology. Stiegler(1952- ) is a French philosopher at Goldsmiths, University of London, and at the Université de Technologie de Compiègne. In addition, he is Director of the Institut de recherche et d'innovation (IRI), founder in 2005 of the political and cultural group, Ars Industrialis, and founder in 2010 of the philosophy school, Ecole de Philosophie d’Epineuil-le-Fleuriel. His best known work is Technics and Time: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stiegler has recently started drawing critical political conclusions from his philosophy of technology.  His influences are many. He has been influenced by the writings of Andre Leroi-Gourhan(1911-1986), the French archaeologist, paleontologist, paleoanthropologist, and anthropologist with an interest in technology and aesthetics and a penchant for philosophical reflection.


Stiegler has also been influenced by: Husserl, Heidegger, Derrida and Simondon, I leave it to readers to read about these other influences on Stiegler. Stiegler argues that anthropogenesis runs parallel to technogenesis in the sense that human beings and technical artifacts are always involved in a mutually constitutive relationship. As the subtitle of his first volume mentioned above, Technics and Time, suggests, Stiegler draws heavily on the famous Greek myth of the brothers Epimetheus and Prometheus to substantiate this provocative claim.

Part 2:

In Protagoras' version of this Greek myth and story as narrated by Plato, Epimetheus is granted the task of distributing qualities or powers(dynameis) among living creatures. The Titan performs his task by giving each creature one specific quality in order to promote equilibrium between the various species. But when it was time for the humans (non-aloga) to receive their due, Epimetheus, who was not particularly bright, suddenly realized that he had already handed out all available qualities. When Prometheus arrives at the scene to inspect Epimetheus' work, he is surprised to find out that the humans are still naked and without means of defense. Because he is worried that their premature constitution could lead to the total destruction of the human race, Prometheus attempts to make up for Epimetheus' fault and decides to steal the skills in the arts and fire (tekhnai) from the gods to compensate humans for their original lack of qualities.


What Stiegler aims to spotlight in his reading of this myth is the fundamental undefinability of the human or what he calls the human's "default of origin".  Hence, technics is not a positive attribute of the human either, but merely an artificial prosthesis that is only adopted afterwards, by default, to compensate for a constitutive lack of origin. The figure of Prometheus, who traditionally stands for man's technical hubris, therefore only makes sense in connection to the figure of his idiotic brother Epimetheus. The fact that the latter's role in the story is usually forgotten by the tradition is just as remarkable as it is understandable, given that Epimetheus is himself essentially a figure of forgetting. Humans are forgetful creatures. They suffer from "retentional finitude," as Stiegler repeatedly suggests, and therefore need technical prostheses to supplement their limited capacity for memorization. Readers should note that this article is, as they say in the literature of many disciplines of the sciences, "heavy", and should only click on this link if their interest is significant. For more on this theme go to:http://www.ctheory.net/articles.aspx?id=706
 
HERBERT MARCUSE ET AL

Herbert Marcuse in the introduction to his 1964 book One Dimensional Man emphasizes the vital importance of the work of C. Wright Mills, especially his The Power Elite and The Sociological Imagination and of studies which are frequently frowned upon because of simplification, overstatement, or journalistic ease such as: Vance Packard's: The Hidden Persuaders, The Status Seekers, and The Waste Makers, William H. Whyte's The Organization Man, Fred J. Cooks The Warfare State belong in this category. To be sure, the lack of theoretical analysis in these works leaves the roots of the described conditions covered and protected.  Left to speak for themselves, though, the conditions speak loudly enough. Perhaps the most telling evidence can be obtained by simply looking at television or listening to the AM radio for one consecutive hour for a couple of days, not shutting off the commercials, and now and then switching the station.
Marcuse concludes this introduction by writing that: "My analysis is focused on tendencies in the most highly developed contemporary societies. There are large areas within and without these societies where the described tendencies do not prevail - I would say: not yet prevail. I am projecting these tendencies and I offer some hypotheses, nothing more". to read his entire introduction go to:http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/marcuse/works/one-dimensional-man/introduction.htm
 
CRITICISM OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY

Extreme radical environmentalism, exhibited in publications such as Green Anarchy, criticizes the concept of environmental technology. From this viewpoint, technology is seen as a system rather than a specific physical tool. Technology, accordingly, requires the exploitation of the environment through the creation and extraction of resources, and the exploitation of people through labor, specialization and the division of labor. Thus, no “neutral” form of technology; things are always created in a certain context with certain aims and functions. Green technology is rejected as an attempt to reform this exploitative system, merely changing it on the surface to make it seem environmentally friendly, despite continued unsustainable levels of human and natural exploitation.


RECYLCING

"Garbage and Recycling: From Literary Theme to Mode of Production" is a paper in the online journal Other Voices: The ejournal of Cultural Criticism by Walter Moser. Moser writes as follows on the subject of reconceptualizing garbage: "Inasmuch as garbage is a function and reality of man-made systems, it has always been a cultural fact and is, since its very beginnings, part of cultural history. But each cultural system, or sub-system such as art, has to deal with the category and the reality of garbage within its own logic. Thus, for instance, an agricultural economy and society will deal with garbage—materially as well as symbolically—in a quite different way than an industrial economy and society. Garbage will be defined and identified in quite different ways by different systems. This means that anything can be considered, or become garbage under certain systemic conditions. In other words, the same object may be considered garbage in one system and a useful, functional cultural artifact in another."

"Yet both systems," continues Moser, "will have to decide where they draw the line between what falls out of order, what is considered impure, what has decayed from its "normal" functioning, what must be refused, rejected and evacuated, and what is part of the normal functioning of the system. It has to make decisions about inclusion and exclusion—and this, of course, on the basis of very complex systemic considerations & processes. In 2 recent articles Walter Moser tried to update the conceptualization of the category "garbage" & to analyze what, expressed as an anthropological metaphor, he considers to be a process of "acculturation of garbage" in contemporary culture. We can indeed observe today that the category "garbage" is in the process of being reevaluated in relation to cultural production and more specifically to art production. To put it simply: garbage, long considered alien and impure, something to be excluded from cultural production, has in recent decades made a progressive entry into the systems of art and culture in many and diverse ways." For more go to: http://www.othervoices.org/3.1/wmoser/index.php

FACIAL RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGY

Readers will find below the first paragraph of a review of the book Our Biometric Future: Facial Recognition Technology and the Culture of Surveillance by Kelly Gates, NYU Press, 261 pages, 2011. The review begins: "Until the summer of 2011, hi-tech riots – broadcast on YouTube and organised by BlackBerry – were mostly the preserve of enterprising dissidents in Iran and China. But in June 2011 hordes of ice hockey fans in Vancouver, outraged by the local team’s loss to a Boston rival, filmed themselves smashing cars and burning shops. Then it happened in the U.K. The crackdowns that follow such riots are equally hi-tech. In both Britain and Canada ordinary members of the public set up Facebook groups to share pictures and videos from the riots, using Twitter to name any identified perpetrators and alert the police. This was cyber-vigilantism at its most creative.

A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the ways to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database. It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. Go to this link for more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Facial_recognition_system  For more of this review go to: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v34/n07/evgeny-morozov/in-your-face