Applied Sciences

Introduction


WHAT IS APPLIED SCIENCE?

Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment. Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science. Fields of engineering are closely related to applied sciences. Applied science is important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as research and development (R&D). Applied science differs from fundamental science, which seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications. Applied science can be like biological science and physical science.


WHAT FORM DOES IT TAKE AS A STUDY PROGRAM?

In the United Kingdom's educational system, Applied Science refers to a suite of "vocational" science qualifications that run alongside "traditional" GCSE or A Level Sciences . Level 2 Courses (GCSE Equivalent): BTEC Applied Science, OCR Nationals, GCSE Applied Science, GCSE Additional Applied Science. Level 3 Courses (A Level Equivalent): GCE Applied Science, BTEC Applied Science, OCR Nationals. Applied Science courses generally contain more coursework (also known as portfolio or internally assessed work) compared to their traditional counterparts. These are an evolution of the GNVQ qualifications that were offered up to 2005 These courses regularly come under scrutiny and are due for review following the Wolf Report 2011; however their merits are argued elsewhere.

In the United States, The College of William & Mary offers an undergraduate minor as well as Master of Science and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in "applied science." Courses and research cover varied fields including neuroscience, optics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive testing, and nuclear magnetic resonance. In New York City, the Bloomberg administration awarded the consortium of Cornell-Technion $100 million in City capital to construct the universities' proposed Applied Sciences campus on Roosevelt Island.


APPLIED SCIENCE AND LEADERSHIP

The Bachelors of Applied Science Degree in in Organizational Leadership prepares students to take leadership roles in a variety of organizations, including corporate, non-profit, military, and government organizations. The degree focuses on the process of leadership which involves: the leader, followers, and the organizational context. Coursework provides insight into crucial leadership topics such as: organizational behavior, decision-making, and team-building. Courses are theory based, but focus on the application of the knowledge being gained. All students must complete a group project within the community as part of a required capstone course that is based on the development of project management skills. The degree prepares students to enter directly into the workforce. With the working adult in mind, classes for this program are very flexible, with the major available fully online or through a combination of online, hybrid, ITV, and/or face-to-face instruction. For more go to:http://degreesearch.arizona.edu/major/applied-science-organizational-leadership-emphasis

SCHOOL OF APPLIED SCIENCE

The School of Applied Sciences is one of the top performing research Schools at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology(RMIT) and has a strong reputation for its research and teaching in fundamental science and advanced molecular technologies.The School's research strengths include: nanotechnology and advanced materials, computational modelling, industrial, medicinal / natural product, food and polymer chemistry, environmental chemistry and biology, plant biotechnology, environmental and medical microbiology. The School aims to deliver high-quality teaching programs and innovative research that addresses ‘real life questions’ essential to Australia’s innovation agenda, while inspiring students to pursue careers in Science. For more on RMIT's programs in applied science go to:http://www.rmit.edu.au/appliedsciences

OUTLINE OF APPLIED SCIENCE

The following outline is provided as an overview of, and a topical guide to , the field of applied science which is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment.  Go to this link for a detailed information base that deals with the outline of these seven topics:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Outline_of_applied_science

    1 What type of thing is applied science?
    2 Fields of applied science
    3 History of applied science
    4 Applied science in education
    5 Applied science organizations
    6 Applied science publications
    7 Persons influential in applied science

   

The following fields are all applied sciences.

    1. Applied engineering – field concerned with the application of management, design, and technical skills for the design and integration of systems, the execution of new product designs, the improvement of manufacturing processes, and the management and direction of physical and/or technical functions of a firm or organization.
    2. Applied linguistics – interdisciplinary field of study that identifies, investigates, and offers solutions to language-related real-life problems. Go to this link at this website for more details:http://www.ronpriceepoch.com/Linguistics.html
    3. Applied mathematics – branch of mathematics concerned with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry. Thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge.
    4. Applied physics – physics intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge between "pure" physics and engineering.
    5. Applied chemistry –
    6. Archaeology (outline) – study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes (the archaeological record).
    7. Artificial intelligence (outline) – intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. Go to this link at this website for more details:http://www.ronpriceepoch.com/Linguistics.html
    8. Ceramic engineering – science and technology of creating objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials.
    9. Computing technology (outline) – computer hardware and software, and computing methods. Go to this link at this website for more details: http://www.ronpriceepoch.com/Computing-technology.html
    10. Electronics – branch of physics, engineering and technology dealing with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies.

    11. Energy technology (outline) – interdisciplinary engineering science having to do with the efficient, safe, environmentally friendly and economical extraction, conversion, transportation, storage and use of energy, targeted towards yielding high efficiency whilst skirting side effects on humans, nature and the environment.
    12. Energy storage (outline) – accomplished by devices or physical media that store some form of energy to perform some useful operation at a later time. A device that stores energy is sometimes called an accumulator.
    13. Environmental engineering science – multidisciplinary field of engineering science that combines the biological, chemical and physical sciences with the field of engineering.
    14. Engineering physics – study of the combined disciplines of physics, engineering and mathematics in order to develop an understanding of the interrelationships of these three disciplines.
    15. Engineering technology (outline) – development and implementation of existing technology within a field of engineering. Go to this link at this website for more details: http://www.ronpriceepoch.com/Computing-technology.html
    16. Environmental technology – application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.
    17. Fisheries science – academic discipline of managing and understanding fisheries. It is a multidisciplinary science, which draws on the disciplines of limnology, oceanography, freshwater biology, marine biology, conservation, ecology, population dynamics, economics and management to attempt to provide an integrated picture of fisheries.
    18. Forensic science (outline) – application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to a legal system. This may be in relation to a crime or a civil action.
    19. Forestry science (outline) – interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit.
    20. Materials science and engineering – interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties.

    21. Medicine (outline) – science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness in human beings.
    22. Microtechnology – technology with features near one micrometre (one millionth of a metre, or 10−6 metre, or 1μm).
    23. Nanotechnology (outline) – study of manipulating matter on an atomic and molecular scale. Generally, nanotechnology deals with developing materials, devices, or other structures possessing at least one dimension sized from 1 to 100 nanometres. Quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale. Go to this link at this website for more details on this topic: http://www.ronpriceepoch.com/Micro-Nanotechnology.html
    24. Nuclear technology (outline) – technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. Among the notable nuclear technologies are nuclear power, nuclear medicine, and nuclear weapons. It has found applications from smoke detectors to nuclear reactors, and from gun sights to nuclear weapons.
    25. Optics – branch of physics which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
    26. Security engineering – focuses on the security aspects in the design of systems that need to be able to deal robustly with possible sources of disruption, ranging from natural disasters to malicious acts.
    27. Software engineering (outline) – application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software.


 JOURNALS AVAILABLE NOW FOR MOST APPLIED SCIENCES

This link will take you to 1 of the best online journals:http://www.nature.com/nature/index.html Here's a journal for materials science & engineering: http://www.ttp.net/0255-5476.html

A TYPICAL PROGRAM OF STUDY IN APPLIED SCIENCE

Part 1:

The Master of Applied Science at the University of Tasmania, where I taught and studied back in the 1970s, is a four semester full-time or eight semester part-time course offered on the Hobart and Launceston campuses by most Schools of the Faculty of Science, Engineering and Technology. While the course for full-time students is the equivalent of four semesters, students with an acceptable background may be able to complete the course in three semesters over one calendar year.

The course aims to:

(i) provide students with opportunities to acquire knowledge, attitudes and skills in a range of basic physical, computational, mathematical, earth and life sciences;
(ii) provide graduates with advanced knowledge in one science discipline; and
meet the needs of industry, business and government agencies.

Part 2:

The study areas available in the Master of Applied science, are listed below:

Specialisation Area Areas within Specialisation
Agricultural Science Agricultural Science
 Horticultural Science
 Microbiology
 Sustainable Resource Management
Chemistry Chemistry
Computing Computing
Earth Sciences Earth Sciences
Geography & Environmental Studies Geography
  Environmental Studies
  Remote Sensing and GIS
Mathematics & Physics Mathematics & Physics
Plant Science Plant Science
Psychology Behavioural Science
Zoology Zoology

THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF SCIENCE

For a review of Michael Polanyi and His Generation: Origins of the Social Construction of Science by Mary Jo Nye go to: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v33/n24/steven-shapin/an-example-of-the-good-life  The review begins as follows in The London Review of Books, 15/12/'11:

"Michael Polanyi lives on in the footnotes. If you want to invoke the idea of ‘tacit knowledge’, Polanyi is your reference of choice. You’ll probably cite his major book Personal Knowledge (1958), maybe the earlier Science, Faith and Society (1946), maybe the later The Tacit Dimension (1966). ‘We know more than we can tell’ was Polanyi’s dictum. We know how to ride a bicycle, but we can’t write down how to do it, at least not in a way that allows non-cyclists to read our instructions, get on their bikes and ride off. We can reliably pick out a familiar face in a crowd, but we can’t say just what it is about the face that we recognise. And, crucially, since Polanyi is now known mainly as a philosopher of science, a scientist can’t adequately describe how to do a bit of science through any version of formalised ‘Scientific Method’. Whether the craft is cooking, carpentry or chemistry, the apprentice learns by watching and doing. Where knowledge and skill are concerned, it’s not all talk.

Citing Polanyi in these connections is itself a sort of craft convention for historians and sociologists who want to say something about the nature of scientific practice. They do it to indicate that there is a history to appreciations of the informal, perhaps unformalisable, dimensions of science, supposedly the most rationally specifiable practice that we have. Yet the citations don’t index the extent to which the texts are actually read. There isn’t a lot of current interest in who Polanyi was, and how he came to hold the views he did. Mary Jo Nye’s excellent and richly researched book aims to tell us and, along the way, uncovers a genealogy for the notion of tacit knowledge that situates it in the force fields shaping much 20th-century thinking about politics and economics as well as science. Two biographical strands run through the book: first, before Polanyi was a philosopher, he was a physical chemist, abandoning the laboratory when he became convinced that telling the world about science was more important for him than doing science; second, he was an émigré Hungarian intellectual whose thinking was forged in the crucible of Central Europe between the wars. For more of this review go to:http://www.lrb.co.uk/v33/n24/steven-shapin/an-example-of-the-good-life

THE CURRENT MOMENT: SENT TO SPACE


In the footsteps of the Voyager Golden Records, sent into space in 1977 by NASA as a record of culture and science at that time, the website Forever Now seeks to investigate our current historical moment. It re-imagines this curatorial act as experimental, politically charged and for the first time places artists at the democratic centre of speaking on humanity’s behalf. Over the course of this event the Forever Now website will go live on 15 June 2013. The curators will unveil their first selections for the record, as well as the scientific processes that will launch the finished work. As a memoirist and autobiographer I have taken an interest in this project.

Go to the following link for what you might call "a mind map" of: the history of applied science, applied science in education, organizations, publications, and influential people in the fields:http://wikimindmap.com/viewmap.php?wiki=en.wikipedia.org&topic=Outline+of+applied+science&Submit=Search